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新型城鎮化與規劃治理的現代化
瀏覽次數:1446信息來源: 中國城市發展網發布時間:2016-11-25

chengshizuoweirenkouhegeleiziyuandegaodujujikongjian,jizhongchengxianlexiandaiguojiazhiliyunxingdefangshihemianlindezhuyaowenti。xinxingchengzhenhuashishixianzhongguoxiandaihuadezhanlvexingxuanze,[1]juyoushenyuandejingjishehuiyingxiang。zuoweiyigefuhedebiangeguocheng,xinxingchengzhenhuazhi“xin”bujinzaiyutashiyichangchaodaguimo、gaosujinxingderenhetudidechengzhenhua,huanzaiyuzheshitayugongyehua、xinxihua、quanqiuhuadengdangdaiqitabiangejinchengjiaozhizaiyiqixianghutuijinde。conggenbenshangshuo,xinxingchengzhenhuadezhanlveyiyizaiyujiang“nongyezhongguo”gaibianwei“chengshizhongguo”,zhonggoulezhengzhijingjishenghuoyunxingdekongjian,chengshichengweirenmenshengchanshenghuodezhuyaochangsuo、guojiazhilidezhuyaoduixianghejibendanwei。

yinci,zhijiangxinxingchengzhenhuashiweijingjizengchangdeyinqing、jingjiganchaodejihui,biranhuisiweihexingdongshangjiandanhua,wufachongfenshixianxinxingchengzhenhuazaijingjishehuifazhanzhongdezhanlvegongneng。meiyouxinxingchengzhenhua,jiutanbushangzhongguodeguojiazhilixiandaihua;bunengtuidongguojiazhilidexiandaihua,xinxingchengzhenhuajiushishixiaodechengzhenhua。benwenjiangcongchengzhenhuadailaidekongjianzhonggourushou,zongjiechengshiguihuazuoweichengshizhilishouduanfahuidezuoyong;ranhoufenxizaizhongguoxinxingchengzhenhuaguochengzhong,guihuazhilimianlindewenti;zuihouchangshitichu,tishengguihuazhilizuoyongderuogancuoshi。

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yi、chengshihuaxuyaokongjiandeguihuazhili

zaibenzhishang,chengshishirenleijujidekongjian。wulunshilishishangdexiaofeichengshi、shengchanchengshihezhongjieshangyechengshi,qigongtongdianjiushi“chengshizaixiangdangdadechengdushangshiyigeyixiangzhedejuluo”。youyurenkoudejuji,shidechengshixiangduiyuxiangcun,jiujuyoulerenkouguimoda、midugaohegetideyizhixingqiangdengtezheng,youcichanshengleyixiliefuzaduoyangdeshehuifengong、shehuiguanxi、shehuixuqiu、shehuiwentiyijixiangyingdediaokongguanlizhidu。[2]

jinguanchengshiyouzhuyoujiudelishi,danshixiandaichengshidechuxian,caizhankailechengshihuazhegeshijiexinglishijincheng。zaidangdai,shijiefanweidechengshihuashizuizhideguanzhudexianxiangzhiyi,duishehuishenghuodegegejieduandouchanshengleshenkedeyingxiang。chengshibujinshixiandairendeqixidihejiagongchang,huanshifadongbingkongzhijingji、zhengzhihewenhuashenghuodezhongxin,taduishehuishenghuodeyingxiangyuanyuanbichengshirenkoubilisuoxianshideyaoda。[3]chengshiyijingchengweiwenmingdezhudaoyinsu,chengshidewenhualinian、shenghuofangshiyijizhidujianshezaiguojiashehuizhongjuyoukongqianqiangdadeliliang,“fadadezhiliyizhishizaichengshizhongfashengde”。[4]

zaichengshihuadechuqi,chengshidefumianxingchongfenbaoluchulai。suizhurenkoudejijujizhong,jiuye、zhufang、gonggongjiankang、gonggonganquan、huanjingwurandengwentikunraozhugeguozhengfu,yinfadeshehuimaodun、jiejichongtushenzhiweixiedaozhengquandewendingheshehuidetuanjie。yinci,cong19shijimoqikaishi,bansuizhuchengshihuajinchengyechuxianlegezhongxingshidechengshigaizaohezhiliyundong,yijiejuechengshihuazhongchanshengdewenti,huanjiechengshizhongchuxiandegezhongmaodun,tishengchengshizuoweirenleijujikongjiandeduozhonggongneng。

chengshiguihuashiconggongnengdejiaodulairenshiheliyongchengshikongjiande。yifangmian,chengshichengzaizhujingji、shehui、wenhua、zhengzhidengduozhonggongneng,lingyifangmiankeyiduichengshineibudekongjianjinxinggongnengxinghuafen,yijiejuechengshiyunxingzhongchuxiandewenti。1928nianyououzhouyixiejianzhushizuzhideguojijianxie(ciam)tichu,chengshihuadeshizhishiyizhonggongnengzhixu,chengshijianshejiushiyaobacheng、xiangjitishenghuodegezhonggongnengzuzhiqilai。zaichengshijianshezhong,qijuedingzuoyongdebushimeixuedebiaozhun,erzhinengshigongnengdebiaozhun。chengshijianshedejibenrenwu,jiushizuzhijuzhu、laodonghexiuxizhesanxianggongneng。erchengshiguihuajuyouzuzhijitishenghuodegongneng,zhongxinfenpeitudishirenhechengshiguihuadejichu。zhexiegongnengzhuyidesixiangchengwei1933niande《yadianxianzhang》dejibenneirong,bingqietongguokebuxiaide“mingridechengshi”、laitede“guangmuchengshi”dengguihualiniandedaolechongfentixian,bingchengwei20shijishangbanxieguihuasixiangdezhuliu。duitamenlaishuo,chengshiguihua,jiushizaigaizaochengshi、gaizaoshehui,chuangzaochurenleikongjiandexinzhixu,tongguochengshikongjiandegongnenghuafen,shixianshehuidehexie。bide?huoerpingjiashuo:dangshideguihuashimenpubianrenwei,chengshifazhanzhongzhiyaoyouyitaolianghaodezongtiwuzhihuanjingshejililunhefangan,qitadejingji、shehuinaizhiwenhuadeyixiliewentijiukeyibimian。[5]

zuoweirenqunhegezhongziyuandejijukongjian,chengshidefuzaxingyuanyuanbushiguihuabenshennenggouyingduide。suizhuchengshihuajinchengdejiakuai,chengshiguihuamianduidebujinshichidubuduanzengdadexinkongjian,huanyoufuzadejiukongjian。renkoujiegou、zhongzuguanxi、jiuyexingtai、zhengzhizhidu、lishiwenhuachuanchengdengduozhongyinsugongtongyingxiangzhuzhexiexinjiukongjiandeyunxing。zhizhongshiwuzhikongjiandeguihua,hushijingjishehuizhengzhiwenhuadengduozhongyinsudeyueshu,chengshiguihuajiuwufadadaoyuxiangdegaizaochengshidemude,shenzhihuichanshengyixieyixiangbudaodeshehuizhengzhihouguo。yimeiguodechengshigengxinyundongweili,zai1949niantongguode《zhufangfa》dezhichixia,yixiechengshitongguoxiaomiedibiaozhunzhuzhai,jianzaogaozhiliangzhuzhai,laizhenxingchengshijingji,jianshaoshehuigeli。danshidachaidajianshidefangshipohuailechengshideyoujixinghelianxuxing,xindezhuzhaichanshenglexindeshehuigeli。jiyuduidaguimochengshigaizaodejiaoxun,1975nian,meiguoguohuitongguole《zhufangjishequfazhanfa》,zhongzhilianbangzhengfuzizhudedaguimochengshigaizaojihua,zhuanxiangchengli“shequfazhanjijin”,fuyudifanggengdadezizhuxing,tuidongshequdejianjinshigengxinhegaizao。

duixiandaichengshiguihuadefansi,cuchenglechengshiguihuasixiangzai20shiji60、70niandaidezhuanxing,rendexuyao、renhechengshideguanxidedaogengchongfendekaolv。tongshi,chengshiguihuasixianggengjiaduoyuanhua。zhexiebianhuajifanyinglezouguobainiandechengshihuajincheng,chongfenzhanxianlechengshidefuzaxinghechengshishenghuodeduoyangxing,yeshuominglechengshiwentidejiejuebukenengdankaoguihuayijiguihuashi,huanxuyaokaolvgengduodeyinsuhetiaojian、gengduodechengshikongjiandecanyuzhe。kuodagongzhongcanyu,zhongshichengshiguihuaduirenyurenguanxideyingxianghediaojie,chengweichengshiguihuadezhongyaolinian。

1969nian,yingguode“gongzhongcanyuguihuaweiyuanhui”(committee on public participation in planning)fabiaole《renyuguihua》(people and planning)debaogao,zuizaotichulegongzhongcanyuchengshiguihuadezhidukuangjia、canyuchengxuyijifangfashouduan。zaiyingguo、meiguoxingqile“shequjianzhu”、“shehuijianzhu”、“shequgaizaozhongxin”dengyundong。

1977niande《maqiubiqiuxianzhang》dui《yadianxianzhang》fabuyilaishijiefanweichengshihuajinchengtichudexintiaozhangeiyulejishidehuiying,bingduijiyoudezhudaoxingguihuasixiangjinxinglequanmiandefansi。《maqiubiqiuxianzhang》tichurenyurendeguanxi、renyuzirandeguanxishichengshiguihuaxuyaoguanzhudejibenguanxi,chengshishiyigedongtaixitong、youjixitong。chengshiguihuabixuduirenleidegezhongxuqiuzuochujieshihehuiying,bushiyonggongnengfenqujiangchengshineibugeliekailai,ershinulichuangzaoyigezonghede、duogongnengdehuanjing,tigaorenmendeshenghuozhiliang,cujinrenyuren、renyuzirandexiediao。yinci,chengshiguihuabixujianlizaigezhuanyeshejiren、chengshijuminyijigongzhonghezhengzhilingdaorenzhijianxitongde、buduandehuxiangxiezuopeihedejichushang。cihoude《huashaxuanyan》(1981nian)、《21shijiyicheng》(1991nian)dengzhongyaowenjian,jinyibufazhanle《maqiubiqiuxuanyan》zhongdeguihualinian,qiangdiaogaijinsuoyourendeshenghuozhiliangyingdangshimeigejujudijianshedegangyao,zhidingzhengce、guihuaheshishiguanlishi,yingdangjiangjingji、shehuihehuanjingyinsuzonghezaiyiqi。

congxiandaichengshiguihualilunheshijiandefazhanlaikan,guihuaconglaijiubushidanchundeduichengshikongjianjinxingdingwei、huafen、diaozhenghegaizaodejishushouduan,ershidaiyouqiangliejiazhiquxiangde,jiangchengshikongjianzuoweikesuzaoduixiang,dachenglianghaokongjianzhixudezhilifangshi。gengweizhongyaodeshi,renheyizhongchengshiguihuadoushenshouwenhua、lishi、zhengzhi、jingjidengyinsudezhiyue,jieguozaochengleguihuade“dazahui”tedian,zhinengduichengshiwentifahuiyingduixing、xiufuxingdezuoyong。[6]chengshiguihuadebianzhiguranxianshilejuecezhedelichanghejiazhixuanze,erqishishixiaoguowangwangqujueyuchengshikongjiancanyuzhezhijiandeliyixiediaoguanxi。erkuodachengshiguihuadegongzhongcanyu,xianzhizhengzhiquanliyuzibenduichengshikongjianderenyiganyu,gaijinchengshidezhilishuiping,riyichengweixiandaichengshiguihualilunheshijiandejibengongshi。

er、xinxingchengzhenhuazhongguihuazhilideruohua

zhongguosuiranyouzhuyoujiudechengshilishi,danshichengshihuajinchengzeshixiandaidechanwu,bingqiezaizhonghuarenmingongheguochenglihoujinglilejihuajingjitizhiheshichangjingjitizhideliangcizhongdazhuanbian。duiyuchengshidegongnengdingwei、chengshihuadelujingxuanzeyijichengshiguihuadezuoyongshenshoutizhiyinsu、guojiafazhanmubiao、fazhanfangshidengyinsudeyingxiang,yetixianlezhenggeguojiazhilidebianhua。

gaigekaifangyilai,chengshihuajinchengsuizhujingjikuaisufazhanyezaijiasu。zaishichangjingjitiaojianxia,chengshihuadetuidongliliangbudandanshiguojia,huanbaokuolexunqiulirunzuidahuadeziben,duijiuyeheshenghuozhiliangyougenggaoyaoqiu、liudongxinggengdadelaodongliyijizhuiqiubendijingjizengchangdedifangzhengfu,zhexieliliangdexianghuzuoyong,bujinshiyikaoxingzhengminglingdiaokongchengshiguimo、yindaochengshihuajinchengdezuofawufadadaoyuxiangdexiaoguo,yetongguoshangyekaifa、gongzhongcanyu、“jingyingchengshi”dengduozhongshijianhuodongfengfuleduichengshigongnengderenshi。

jinru21shijihou,zhongguochengzhenhuakuaisufazhan。“shiwu”guihuashoucizhengshitichu“chengzhenhua”gainian,tichuzoudazhongxiaochengshihexiaochengzhenxiediaofazhandeduoyanghuachengzhenhuadaolu。zaizhongguodeyujingxia,chengzhenhuabichengshihuayouzhugengfengfudeneihan,jifanyinglechengshihuadeguimofenceng,yetixianlechengxiangzhijian、chengshizhijianxiediaofazhandelinian。2014niande《guojiaxinxingchengzhenhuaguihua》jiangxinxingchengzhenhuadaolugaikuowei:yirenweiben、sihuatongbu、youhuabuju、shengtaiwenming、wenhuachuancheng。xinxingchengzhenhualiniandetichu,jinyibuyanshenlexiediaofazhandechengzhenhuasilu,jiangrenzuoweichengzhenhuadehexin,jiangshengtaiwenmingrongruchengzhenhuadequanguocheng,bingfuyulechengshihechengzhenhuachuanchengwenhuadegongneng。

suizhuduichengshigongnengdingweihechengshihualujingxuanzerenshideshenhua,chengshiguihuayingfahuidezuoyonghemianlindewentiyegengjiaqingxi。2007nian,《chengxiangguihuafa》tongguo,tidaile1990niankaishishishide《chengshiguihuafa》,jiangguihuayingyongdefanweicongchengshikuodadaochengshihexiangcun,bingjiangguihuadegongnengcong“quedingchengshideguimohefazhanfangxiang,shixianchengshidejingjiheshehuifazhanmubiao”tuozhanwei“xiediaochengxiangkongjianbuju,gaishanrenjuhuanjing,cujinchengxiangjingjishehuiquanmianxiediaokechixufazhan”。zhezhongzhuanbian,jituchulechengshiyinggaijuyoudezonghexinggongneng、shixianyirenweibendejiazhisuqiu,yeduiguihuazaichengzhenhuazhongdezuoyongtichulexindeyaoqiu。

zaikuaisutuijindechengzhenhuajinchengyijifuzaduoyangdechengshishenghuozhong,guihuazhishidiaokongzhegeguochenghechengshikongjianzhongshehuijingjiguanxidezhilishouduanzhiyi。yifangmianguihuamianduideshibansuizhuchengzhenhuaerriyiduoyuanhuadeliyizhutijiqiduichengshishenghuotichudegenggaoqidaiheyaoqiu;lingyifangmianguihuazuoyongdefahuiyoushenshouzhenggezhilikuangjiadexiandinghezishennenglideyueshu,nanyiduichengshikongjianjiqineibuguanxijinxingjishuxingdezhengtixingguiding,shideguihuayuanjingyuguihuazhixingzhijianjingchangchuyugaodudefenlizhuangtai,xueruoleguihuadeyingxiangliyijizhenggechengshizhilitizhidegongxinli。

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jutieryan,yixiayixieyinsuxianzhilechengzhenguihuazuoyongdechongfenfahui:

diyi,rezhongyufazhanjianshededifangzhengfuhenrongyijiangjishuxingdechengzhenguihuagongjuhua,jiangguihuazhiyujueceguochengdezhongjian,naizhizuihouhuanjie,fahuiqiduijuecedelunzhenghezhixinggongneng,erfeixiandinghezhidaogongneng。renmenpubianchengren,chengxiangguihuadaiyouhenqiangdejishuxing:yifangmianguihuashiyou“juyouxiangyingzizhidengjidedanwei”chengdande,zhexiedanweidezizhijingchengxiangguihuazhuguanbumenyifashenchahege,bingqudexiangyingdedengjizizhizhengshu;lingyifangmian,guihuadejutibianzhizheshijingguowuyuanchengxiangguihuazhuguanbumenzhucedeguihuashi,zaigongzuozhongzunshoutongyidejishuguifanbiaozhun,shiyongxiangyingdejishushebei。[7]guihuachengguowanchenghou,yaolvxingfadingdepizhunhebeianchengxu,cainengshishi。jinguanruci,chengzhenguihuadejishuhuabingmeiyouchanshengxiangyingdequanweixing,fanerdaozhiqigengrongyibeidifangzhengfu,tebieshidangzhengyibashoucaozong。youyanjiubiaoming,jishiyuanxianzhuguanchengshiguihua,zairenneijijiweihuchengshiguihuadelingdao,danrenchengshizhuyaofuzerenhuozhedangzhengyibashouhou,buyijuguihuajuecedengdengdexianxiangyehuibuduanchuxian,shenzhigengyouguozhierwubuji。[8]zhisuoyiruci,yifangmianzaiyuguihuadezhuguandanweizhishizhengfuxitongzhongdeyigezhuanyexingjiaogaodezhinengbumen,duiyuzhengfujuecedeyingxiangliyouxian;lingyifangmian,guihuadejutichengdandanweiyudifangzhengfuzhijianshi“weituo-daili”guanxi,weilehuodeguihuajingfeiyijirihoudejihui,henrongyishoudaoweituofangyizhideyingxiangshenzhizhudao,fangqiguihuadedulixing,jieguomouxiedifanglingdaochengweichengshide“zongguihuashi”,erguihuazhuanyerenyuanlunweile“huatuyuan”。lingwai,guihuadezhuanyexinghejishuhua,zengqiangleqibianzhiguochengdefengbixing,yexianzhilegongzhongduiguihuadecanyuhelejie,weidifangzhengfudesuiyixingweichuangzaogengdadekongjian。

dier,zhilitixizhongde“tiaokuai”guanxi,jiangdilechengzhenguihuazonghexingzuoyongdefahui。chengzhenguihuashiyouxiangyingcengjidedifangzhengfuzhidingde,shuyu“kuai”dezeren,danjiuchuizhide“tiaotiao”guanxieryan,chengzhenguihuadezhuguanbumenxiangduiyuqitazhengfuzhinengbumenwulunshizhengzhixingzhengdiweihuanshiziyuandongyuannengli,dounanyiquebaochengzhenguihuazaibianzhiheshishiguochengzhongyougengdadeyingxiangli。duiyudifangzhengfulaishuo,fuzejingjishehuifazhanguihuadefagaiweichengdanzhuxiangshangjizhengquxiangmudezhize,fuzetudishiyongguihuadeguotubumenbujinshixingleshangjizhiguan,erqienenggoubangzhuzhengqugengduodeyongdizhibiao,erchengzhenguihuayidanbianzhihou,faneryueshuledifangzhengfudexingwei,youqixianzhilejirendedifanglingdaorendexuanze。yinci,difangzhengfuzaizuoxuduozhongdajuecedeshihou,wangwangbushizhudongdizunxunjiyoudeguihua,ershixiangfangshefaraokaiguihuadexianzhi,shenzhixiugaihuoweifanguihua。erguihuadebianzhihediaozheng,yewangwangshiweiraozhongdajianshexiangmu,chengleyougexiangjutijianzhuxiangmuzuchengdezongpingmiantu,wufatixianguihuadezonghexinghelitixing。lingwai,geguihuazaigezide“tiaotiao”kuangjiazhongbianzhi,ershishiyoushiyong“zhengfufuze、bumenluoshi”defangshi,chuxianle“tiaotiao”zhijianxiediaobuli、“kuaikuai”zhijianguanxihunluandejumian,guihuaxiediaoshishinanyiluoshi。

disan,chengzhenguihuayuqitazhongyaoguihuazhijianquefaxiediao,nanyixingchengguihuaheli。chulechengzhenguihuawai,huanyoujingjishehuifazhanguihua、tudiliyongzongtiguihua、huanjingbaohuguihua、zhutigongnengquguihua、shengtaigongnengquguihuadeng。zhexieguihuadouyouxiangyingdezhengfuzhinengbumenfuze,youshangweiguihuadezhidao,xingchenglejiaoweiwanshandebianzhihezhixingtixi。jinguanzhexieguihuazhenduideshitongyigekongjiandebutonglingyudefazhanhezhiliwenti,danshicunzaizhubuxiediao、buxianjie、butongyidengwenti。zhezhuyaobiaoxianzaisigefangmian。shouxian,gezhuyaoguihuadelishilaiyuanhejibenlinianbutong。liruchengzhenzongtiguihualaiyuanyuoumeiguojiachengzhenhuajibenwendingzhihouxingchengdejishutixi,yixifangchengshihuajingyanjiqiduichengshidelijierenshiweizhongyaocankaobiaozhun,bukebimiandidaiyouxifangdechengshixiangxianglaikandaizhongguodechengshihua;jingjishehuifazhanguihuajiejianlesulianjihuajingjishiqidewunianjihua,jinguanzaigaigekaifangzhihoujinxinglezhongdagaizao,yizhidaoxing“guihua”tidailezhilingxing“jihua”,danshiyirancaiyongxiangmufangshilaifenpeiziyuan;tudizongtiguihuachuyuliangshianquanzhanlvekaolv,bingqieyouzhutudisuoyouzhihetudishiyongleixingdezhicheng。zhiyuqitachanshenggengwandeguihua,cezhongdianyegebuxiangtong。qici,zhexieguihuabianzhidezhouqixiangchajiaoda。liruchengxiangzongtiguihuaqixianwei20nian,erjingjiheshehuifazhanguihuaguihuaqixianshi5nian,tudiliyongzongtiguihuadeguihuaqixianyibanwei15niandeng。zhexieguihuabianzhizhouqidechayi,guranshiyinweizhenduibutongdewentihelingyu,danshiyehuidaozhigeguihuadeqidianshujubutongyi,duixianzhuangfenxiheyuqipanduanchayijiaodadengwenti。zaici,jinguangeguihuadouxingchenglezijijiaoweiwanzhengdejishubiaozhun、bianzhiliuchengyijifangfashouduan,danshixianghuzhijianquefatongyixing,shujubunengfenxiang。shenzhiyouyuzhangwoshujuzhiliangdechabie,daozhiduitongyiwenticunzaijiaodaderenshichabie。zuihou,geguihuazhuguanbumenzaizhengfutixizhongdediweiyijiguanlifangshi,zhijieyingxiangdaoguihuadexiediao。liru,chulefagaiwei(ju)shuyuzhengfuxitongzhongdezonghexingbumenwai,qitabumendoushuyuzhuanyexingbumen,qizhongtudibumenhuancaiqudeshizhijieguanli。gengzhongyaodeshi,zaizhengfuyunzuozhong,zhexiezhinengbumenwangwangyougezidefenguanlingdao(fuxianchanghuofushichang),yougezidegongzuokaohezhongdian,zhewuyiqianghualegexiangguihuazhijianxiediaodenandu。

disi,guihuakongjianzhongderenkou、ziben、chanye、huanjingdengyaosuyijixiangguanzhilifangshidebianhuawangwangchaochuguihuabenshendediaozheng。zhongguodechengzhenhuabujinsudukuai,erqieshihegongyehua、xinxihua、nongyexiandaihua、shengtailvsehuadengjinchengjiaozhizaiyiqide,zhewuyizaochengleguihuakongjianneizhuyaoyaosudekuaisujiju、kaifaqiangdudejijutigao、kongjiangongnengdedafudubianhua,zhexiebianhuachangchangchaochuguihuashedingheyuqidebiaozhun。yirenkouweili,wulunjingjifadayufou,zhongxinchengzhendouchengjieledaliangdewailairenkou,duidangdidejichusheshihegonggongfuwunenglitichuleyanjuntiaozhan。chulerenkoudeliuruwenti,renkoulaolinghuajiasuhechanyezhuanxingshengjidaozhidejiuyejiegoudebianhua,yeshichengzhenguihuananyiyupande,bingzhijieyingxiangdaoguihuashishidexiaoguo。difangzhengfuweilezhaoshangyinzi,wangwangzuidahuamanzutouzizhedeyaoqiu,diaozhengchanyedekongjianbuju,shenzhifangrentouzizheduiguihuahongxiandetupo,youcizaochenglechengzhenguihuayujingjishehuifazhanguihua、tudishiyongguihuazhijiandechongtu。jinnianlai,xuduodifangdaguimotuijincunzhuanghebing、“chexiangbingzhen”、“chexianjianqu”、xianquhebing、checunjianju、chengxiangdashequjianshedengxingzhengquhuahejicengguanlifangshidiaozheng,shidechengzhenguihuasuoyituodexingzhengdanyuanheshishizhutifashenglejudabiandong,xingzhengguihuayuchengzhenguihuazhijianchanshenglejiaodadebuduiying,yixieguihuamubiaonanyishixian,erbuduanchanshengdexinxuqiuhexinwentiyebunengdedaochengzhenguihuadejishihuiyingheyouxiaodiaojie。

diwu,chengzhenguihuadebianzhidanweicunzaizhuguodushangyehuadeqingxiang,zhuanyedulixingbeixueruo。jinguanguihuadanweixuyaoyidingdezizhiyaoqiu,danshiqiyehuayunxingshiqiyouxiankaolvlirunheshichangfene。weici,zaizhaobiaohetoubiaodeguochengzhong,weilejiangdichengben,huodeweituofangderenke,huijiangdishenzhifangqizhuanyeyaoqiuhexingyebiaozhun。youdeguihuadanweiduiyuweituofangdeyaoqiu,wudixianmanzu,shichengzhenguihuabianchenglegebielingdaorenpianhaoshixiandelantu,huozhechengweimouxietouzizhexiangmudelunzhengshu;youdeguihuadanweiliyongzijidepaizida、diweigaodeyoushi,yizhangtuzhiyongdaodi,jiangyizhangchengzhenguihua,suibianxiugaixiashuju,yongyubutongdedifang;youdeguihuadanweizaizhongbiaozhihou,cengcengzhuanbao,shiquleduizhiliangdekongzhi。guihuadanweizhuanyedulixingdexueruo,fanguolaiyejiangdileguihuabenshendequanweixinghegongxinli。

shangshuyinsudecunzai,shichengshiguihuawufafahuiqizaichengshizhiliguochengzhongdejichuxing、guifanxingzuoyong,zhefanguolaiyexianzhilechengshizhilizhengtijixiaodetisheng。jinnianlai,womenyifangmiankandaochengshihuagaogemengjinqudedejudachengjiu,lingyifangmianyetiyandaoquefaguihuayindaokongzhidechengshihuachanshengdezhuduowenti。biruguokuaidetudichengshihuadaozhilefangdichanyexugao、“guicheng”dechuxianyijichengshikaifazhaiwudekuaisuzengjia;zhizhongshidishangjianzhu,hushidixiajichusheshidaozhidedafanweichengshineilao;chengshihuayuchanyebujudebuxianjiechanshengde“shuicheng”he“weicheng”;chengshijianshesichukaihua,tudilangfeiyanzhong;chengshikongjiandeguihuabuheli,gonggongkongjianquefa,gonggongfuwufenbubuhelideng;yixiechengshishejituolidangdihuanjinghelishiwenhua,mangmutandaqiuyang、zhaobanzhaochao。zaichengshizheyanggaodujujidekongjianzhong,zhexiewentizhuanhuaweijingjishehuifengxiandekenengxinghechanshengdepohuaixingwuyidadatigao,chaochulexianyouchengshizhilitixideyingduinengli。

zhexiewentijizhongtixianweisangebutongbu:tudichengshihuayurendechengshihuabutongbu;dimiandechengshihuayudixiadechengshihuabutongbu;kongjiandechengshihuayuzhilidechengshihuabutongbu。zhexiebutongbujiaozhizaiyiqi,xianghuyingxiang,jichanshengledaliangxinwenti,yeyanxuhejihuoleyixielaowenti。lilunjieheshijianzheduiyuzhexiebutongbujiqichanshengdefumianyingxianghedailaidefengxianjibendachenggongshi。[9]

san、tigaochengxiangguihuadezhilixiaoli

2013nianzhonggongshibajiesanzhongquanhuitichutuijinguojiazhilitixihezhilinenglixiandaihuadezhanlvemubiao,duichengshiguihuatichulexindeyaoqiu,yaowanshanchengzhenhuajiankangfazhantizhijizhi,youhuachengshikongjianjiegouheguanligeju。2013nian12yuedezhongyangchengzhenhuahuiyimingquetichuchengshiguihuayaoyoukuozhangxingguihuazhubuzhuanxiangxiandingchengshibianjie、youhuakongjianjiegoudeguihua。yixiliejutidegaigecuoshixianshichu,chengshiguihuayaozaichengshihuahechengshizhiliguochengzhongfahuigengquanmiandeguifanyindaozuoyong,youqiyaoshixianduichengshikongjiandegengyouxiaodegaizao、zhengheheyouhua。

yaogenghaodifahuichengxiangguihuadezhiligongneng,yinggaicongyixiajigefangmianrushou:

diyi,yaocongguojiazhilixiandaihuadegaodulairenshichengxiangguihuadediweihezuoyong。chengxiangguihuashixiandaidechanwu,tixianleyigeguojiazhilixiandaihuadeshuiping,yeweixiandaiguojiazhilitigonglexindeshouduanhegongju。zaizhongguo,chengxiangguihuatizhiyeshiguojiaxingzhengguanlizhidudezhongyaozuchengbufen,bingshenshouxingzhengtizhigaigedeyingxiang。suizhuchengshihuajinchengdejiakuai,chengshijiangchengweidangdaizhongguoguojiazhilidezhuyaokongjiandanwei,chengshineibuguanxi,chengxiangguanxigengjiafuza,gengxuyaoyouxiaodediaojie。tongshi,gaigedequanmianshenru,dadatigaoledingcengshejidejinpoxinghezhongyaoxing,chengxiangguihuaduiyuguojiayijidifangdefazhanjuyoudingcengshejideyiyi,qiyingxiangyijingchaochulewuzhiguihuahepingmianguihua,daiyouqiangliedediaozheng、zhonggouzhilikongjiandeqingxiang。yinci,yinggaigengjiazhongshichengxiangguihua,fahuiqixiangduiyuqitaguihuazhouqichang、kongjianxingqiangdeyoushi,gaijinyuqitaguihuazhijiandexiediaoguanxi。

dier,yaotigaochengxiangguihuadefalvyueshuli。chengxiangguihuadebianzhiheshishishou《chengxiangguihuafa》debaozhang。yidanbutongcengjidechengxiangguihuajingguofadingchengxutongguoshishi,jiuyinggaiyangezunxun,bunengxukonggezhi,gengburongsuiyixiugaihechufan。daozhigejichengxiangguihuafalvyueshulibuzuyouduozhongyuanyin,erzhifafangshineibuhuahechengfalidudishizhongyaodeyuanyin。yinggaitansuogengyouxiaodezhifafangshi,zhongdianyueshudifangzhengfuhetouzishangzheliangleizuirongyipohuaichengxiangguihuadezhuti,zengqiangzhifalidu,tigaoweifachengben,shichengxiangguihuazhenzhengchengweidifangzhili、chengshizhilidehefayiju。

disan,yaotigaochengxiangguihuadekexueshuiping。chengxiangguihuashizhuanyexingguihua,kexuexingyiweizhuquanweixinghegongxinli。zhongguoshehuidejijufuzabiange,duirenheyizhongguihuadoutichuletiaozhan。yaotigaochengxiangguihuadekexueshuiping,chuleyaochongfenfahuizhuanyejigoudezuoyong、zunxunxiangguanbiaozhunwai,gengzhongyaodeshizaiguihuabianzhiguochengzhong,tongchouhaoyuxiangguanbumen、xiangguanlingyu、xiangguanguihuadengzhijiandeguanxi,quebaoguihuadezonghexing、qianzhanxinghekediaokongxing。《guojiaxinxingchengzhenhuaguihua(2014-2020nian)》tichuyaojiaqiangtongchoutuijinrenkouguanli、tudiguanli、caishuijinrong、chengzhenzhufang、xingzhengguanli、shengtaihuanjingdengzhongdianlingyuheguanjianhuanjietizhigaige,tongchoushishichengshiqunguihua,tuijinchengshiqunyitihuadengcuoshi,mudejiushiweichengxiangguihuadetongchoubianzhichuangzaogenghaodetizhihuanjing。zailuoshihetuijinzhexiejucuodeguochengzhong,yaojiaqiangchengxiangguihuayuqitaguihuazhijiandeshujugongxiang、pingtaigongjianyijirichanghudong。erchengxiangguihuadezhuanyedanweihezhuguanbumenyeyaojiaqiangduiguihuaquyudeshenruyanjiu,zhangwogengweixiangjindeshuju,zuohaokexueyanpan,xingchengfuhedangdiziranlishitiaojianhefazhanqianjingyaoqiudeguihualantu。

disi,yaozengqiangchengxiangguihuademinzhuhuashuiping。chengxiangguihuashiyigedifangdezhongyaojuece,chuleyaoyoukexuexingwai,yeyaotigaominzhuhuashuiping。suizhushehuiliyiheshehuiguanniandeduoyuanhua,zhegerenwuxiandegengjiapoqie。fadaguojiadechengshiguihuafazhanjingyanbiaoming,zengqiangguihuadegonggongcanyu,youzhuyuxishougezhongyijianjianyi,fahuiguihuadeshehuiguanxidiaojiezuoyong。《chengxiangguihuafa》duiyuruhetigaoguihuabianzhidegongkaixing、toumingxing,kuodagongzhongcanyu,youmingquedeguiding。gedizaizhefangmianyejinxingletansuo,qudelexuduojingyan。yinggaizhongshiduizhexiejingyandezongjietisheng,xingchengzhiduhuazuofa。

diwu,yaogenghaodifahuixianzaichengxiangguihuazhongdezuoyong。suizhuxinxingchengzhenhuadetuijin,xianzaichengxiangguihuazhongdediweijianggengweizhongyao。erjiuzhenggeguojiazhilitixilaishuo,xianyuzhilishituijinguojiazhilitixihezhilinenglixiandaihuadezhongyaoyihuan。muqian,xianjizhengfuzhibianzhizhengfusuozaidizhendezongtiguihua,erxianyuneiqitaxiangzhendeguihuafenshugezixiangzhenzhengfufuze,zhesuiranfuhexianfahedifangzhengfuzuzhifaduigejizhengfuzhizedeguiding,danshibingbushiyingchengxiangtongchoufazhandexinyaoqiu,yinweisuizhuxinxingchengzhenhuadetuijin,xianyuneigexiangzhendeguihuaxuyaoduijietongchou,xianglinxianzhijiandeguihuayexuyaoxiediaopeihe。yinci,yinggaifahuixianjizhengfudetongchouzuoyong,xiediaoxianyuneixiangzhenguihua,bingqiejiaqiangduixianchengsuozaidihezhongxinxiangzhendeguihua,bimianxinxingchengzhenhuaguochengzhongchuxiangeziweizheng、daochujianloudewuxujumian。

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